By F. Kalesch. Robert Morris College, Illinois.
This includes all the literature to which you have referred in your report buy cheap amitriptyline 25mg on-line mood disorder rage. A popular method is the Har- vard system which lists the authors’ surnames alphabeti- cally amitriptyline 50 mg cheap depression facebook, followed by their initials, date of publication, title of book in italics, place of publication and publisher. If the reference is a journal article, the title of the article appears in inverted commas and the name of the journal appears in italics, followed by the volume number and pages of the article. Figure 5 pro- vides a section of a bibliography from a PhD thesis to il- lustrate this method. Bibliography Larger dissertations or theses will require both a reference section and a bibliography. As discussed above, the refer- ence section will include all those publications to which you have referred to in your report. If, however, you have read other work in relation to your research but not actu- ally referred to them when writing up your report, you might wish to include them in a bibliography. However, make sure they are still relevant to your work – including books to make your bibliography look longer and more impressive is a tactic which won’t impress examiners. Example list of references Appendices If you have constructed a questionnaire for your research, or produced an interview schedule or a code of ethics, it may be useful to include them in your report as an appen- HOW TO REPORT YOUR FINDINGS/ 139 dix. In general, appendices do not count towards your to- tal amount of words so it is a useful way of including ma- terial without taking up space that can be used for other information. However, do not try ﬁlling up your report with irrelevant appendices as this will not impress exam- iners. When including material you must make sure that it is relevant – ask yourself whether the examiner will gain a deeper understanding of your work by reading the appen- dix. Other information which could be included as an appendix are recruitment leaﬂets or letters; practical details about each research participant; sample transcripts (if permission has been sought); list of inter- view dates; relevant tables and graphs or charts which are too bulky for the main report. X It is obvious that ideas and sentences have been ta- ken from other sources. Most academic journals do not pay for ar- ticles they publish, but many professional or trade publi- cations do pay for your contribution, if published. However, competition can be ﬁerce and your article will have to stand out from the crowd if you want to be suc- cessful. The following steps will help you to do this: X Choose a topical, original piece of research. X Do your market research – ﬁnd out which journal pub- lishes articles in your subject area. X Check on submission guidelines – produce an article in the correct style and format and of the right length. X Read several copies of the journal to get an idea about the preferences of editors. X If you are thinking about writing for a trade publica- tion, approach the editors by letter, asking if they might be interested in an article. X Produce a succinct, clear, interesting and well-written article – ask friends, tutors or colleagues to read it and provide comments. X Make sure there are no mistakes, remembering to check the bibliography. X If it is your ﬁrst article, gain advice from someone who has had work published. Also you might ﬁnd it easier to write an article with someone else – some tutors or HOW TO REPORT YOUR FINDINGS/ 141 supervisors will be willing to do this as it helps their publication record if their name appears on another article. You may ﬁnd that you will do most of the work, but it is very useful to have someone read your article and change sections which do not work or read well. It is also useful to have people comment on your methodology or analysis assumptions which could be criticised by other researchers. ORAL PRESENTATIONS Another method of presenting your research ﬁndings is through an oral presentation.
X To gain access a researcher must be non-threatening quality amitriptyline 75 mg depression gad symptoms, displaying appropriate behaviour and body language and wearing appropriate dress generic 10mg amitriptyline fast delivery depression transfer definition. X A useful way of gaining access is to ﬁnd a gatekeeper who can introduce you to other members of the com- munity. X A researcher needs to do much soul-searching before going into the ﬁeld as the experience can raise many ethical, moral and personal dilemmas. X It is sometimes quicker and more economical to wait for questions to come to the researcher, rather than ask questions of informants in the early stages of a study. X Field notes may record practical details, methodologi- cal issues, personal thoughts, preliminary analyses and working hypotheses. X Data analysis takes place in the ﬁeld so that hypotheses can be discussed with key informants. X The community should be left on good terms and any written reports should be given back to the people for their interest and personal comments. It could be inﬂuenced also by the methodo- logical standpoint of the person who teaches on your re- search methods course. DECIDING WHICH APPROACH TO USE For quantitative data analysis, issues of validity and relia- bility are important. Quantitative researchers endeavour to show that their chosen methods succeed in measuring what they purport to measure. They want to make sure that their measurements are stable and consistent and that there are no errors or bias present, either from the respon- dents or from the researcher. Qualitative researchers, on the other hand, might ac- knowledge that participants are inﬂuenced by taking part in the research process. They might also acknowledge that researchers bring their own preferences and experience to the project. Ask two researchers to analyse a transcript and they will probably come up with very diﬀerent results. This may be because they have studied diﬀerent subjects, 110 HOW TO ANALYSE YOUR DATA/ 111 or because they come from diﬀerent political or methodo- logical standpoints. It is for this reason that some re- searchers criticise qualitative methods as ‘unscientiﬁc’ or ‘unreliable’. This is often because people who come from quantitative backgrounds try to ascribe their methods and processes to qualitative research. For qualitative data, the researcher might analyse as the re- search progresses, continually reﬁning and reorganising in light of the emerging results. For quantitative data, the analysis can be left until the end of the data collection process, and if it is a large survey, statistical software is the easiest and most eﬃcient method to use. For this type of analysis time has to be put aside for the data input process which can be long and laborious. However, once this has been done the analysis is quick and eﬃcient, with most software packages producing well presented graphs, pie charts and tables which can be used for the ﬁnal report. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS To help you with the analysis of qualitative data, it is use- ful to produce an interview summary form or a focus group summary form which you complete as soon as possible after each interview or focus group has taken place. This includes practical details about the time and place, the participants, the duration of the interview or focus group, and details about the content and emerging themes (see Figures 2 and 3). It is useful to complete these forms as 112 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS soon as possible after the interview and attach them to your transcripts. The forms help to remind you about the contact and are useful when you come to analyse the data. The method you use will depend on your research topic, your personal preferences and the time, equipment and ﬁ- nances available to you. Also, qualitative data analysis is a very personal process, with few rigid rules and procedures. It is for this reason that each type of analysis is best illu- strated through examples (see Examples 8–11 below).
He gradually became a specialist in the treatment of children’s deformi- ties buy cheap amitriptyline 10mg on line depression residual symptoms, but never gave up his interests in other aspects of surgery purchase amitriptyline 25 mg free shipping depression no motivation. His most famous contributions were the papers he wrote about the pathology and treatment of congenital dislocation of the hip. He was one of the ﬁrst to advocate a direct surgical approach, stressing the role of the inverted limbus in preventing concentric reduction. The 313 Who’s Who in Orthopedics “Somerville” method, which he taught to sur- ing the ﬁrst orthopedic service in the Sudan and geons from all over the world, was a logical visited Khartoum regularly to supervise it. In sequence of procedures in which a period of trac- 1964, with assistance from Barbara Castle’s tion on a Wing ﬁeld frame was followed by con- Ministry of Overseas Development, he set up an trast arthrography of the hip and excision of the orthopedic service and training program in Burma limbus if it was inverted. The leg was then immo- and visited Rangoon regularly, even after his bilized in a plaster spica in full internal rotation retirement. At home, he was editorial secretary for a month, when a derotation osteotomy was and then vice president of the British Orthopedic performed. His method contrasted with the long Association and was sometime president of the periods of splinting, and the uncertain outcome, orthopedic section of the Royal Society of Medi- of the “conservative” methods often used at that cine, the British Orthopedic Research Society and time. The children whom he treated were never dis- Edgar Somerville’s recreations were pursued charged from his care, most being examined per- just as energetically and with no less success. He sonally once a year in Oxford at clinics that soon had university Blues for hockey and tennis and became study sessions on skeletal development. In the 1960s he Miniaturized radiographs, meticulously mounted took up sailing and cruised the coasts from on a large cardboard sheet, told the story of each Copenhagen to southern Brittany. Like frames from a slow-motion cin- The years of his retirement were busy with ematograph, the yearly ﬁlms were used to teach travel and golf, but his joy in sailing receded after the importance of the fourth dimension in pedi- the death of his wife Margaret in 1981. To maintain these records, patients vived by his daughter and by his two grandsons, were relentlessly pursued; the international whose sporting efforts he applauded from the network of Somerville’s trainees made escape, touch-line to within a few weeks of his death. The unique archive that resulted is maintained to this day, and mothers who were themselves treated by him in infancy now bring their own babies to the clinics. Somerville also wrote on congenital coxa vara and was among the ﬁrst to practice osteotomy for Perthes’ disease. He also introduced the concept of “persistent fetal alignment” of the hip in a short paper in The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, which is a good example of the clarity of his thinking and of his writing. All his ideas were brought together in the book Development of the Hip in Childhood, which he wrote in retirement in 1981. Somerville had studied scoliotic deformity of the spine even before he went to Oxford, and this was the subject of one of his most penetrating insights. His theory that it resulted from lordosis, which led to rotation, was ignored for nearly 40 years, but was resurrected in the 1980s, when methods of treatment based upon it were suc- cessfully applied. James Spencer SPEED His reputation as a teacher was international, and during the last 20 years of his professional 1890–1970 life he traveled the world as a lecturer and visit- ing professor, to more than 30 countries. His real Born July 30, 1890, in Rapid City, South Dakota, enthusiasm, however, was for those places where Dr. His family he could actually do something, rather than just moved to Omaha, Nebraska, when he was a small talk about it. He played a leading part in organiz- child and soon thereafter returned to his parents’ 314 Who’s Who in Orthopedics original home in Roanoke, Virginia, where he Medical Association in 1934 and of the orthope- spent his high-school days. He was a member of Alpha Omega (AB 1912) and Johns Hopkins University (MD Alpha and an honorary member of the British 1916). He held membership in pital in Roanoke, Virginia, and training at Union 20 medical societies, including the Southern Protestant Inﬁrmary (later Union Memorial Hos- Surgical Association, the American College of pital) in Baltimore, Maryland, he served during Surgeons, the American Academy of Orthopedic World War I as a ﬁrst lieutenant in the United Surgeons, and the International Society for Ortho- States Army Medical Corps with Mobile Hospi- pedic Surgery and Traumatology. Speed’s retirement in 1962 closed a long, Returning to civilian life, he served a year of res- full chapter of service and achievement in ortho- idency at the Hospital for Women in Baltimore, pedics. Although he resigned all administrative Maryland, and prepared to begin practicing in the duties, he remained the senior consultant of the South. Campbell Clinic and was honored in 1965 as A trip to Memphis to ﬁnd a partner was fruit- Tennessee Physician of the Year.
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