By K. Pedar. Eastern Illinois University.
Clearly the types of categorization of neuronal ﬁring (conjunctive neurons) are di¤erent within di¤erent structures generic 50mg kamagra overnight delivery erectile dysfunction zyrtec. It is therefore possible to limit categorization within replacement devices to a smaller set of features than would be necessary if the population vari- ances were not known generic kamagra 50 mg with amex erectile dysfunction doctor melbourne. By tuning such replacement networks to recognize features extracted by statistical assessment of intact, i. This approach need not eliminate the ability of the replacement network to orga- nize di¤erentially (i. Deadwyler Neural Network for Trial Encoding X0 X1 Xm XM Input Layer: Task Features w w wj,0 wj,M wK,0 1,0 1,1 wj,m w w K,M 1,M rj r1 rK Hidden Layer: y1 Event Encoding y2 y3 Output Layer: z1 Trial Encoding Figure 6. The network is built from multiple parallel copies of the three-layer model shown in ﬁgure 6. Note that only three parallel networks are shown although an actual network would most likely consist of thousands of input neurons (Xn) and hundreds of parallel sheets of event encoding neurons (Yn), converging on a rel- atively sparse number of trial-encoding neurons (Zn). A complex network is thus formed, with task fea- tures on the input layer, discrete task events encoded by hidden layers, and encoding of trials or complex task correlates on the output layer. The latter facet is important because it retains the ﬂexibility of the replacement network to alter its weighting of representations within the set of appropriate task dimensions. As an example, two major sources of variance within a population code for arm movement might be location and direction. For a given circumstance, mov- ing the arm from location x to y deﬁnes a particular trajectory (i. Neurons in the motor cortex will encode this so that the peak ﬁring within the population occurs as the arm is moved along this trajectory. However, if in an- other context the arm is to be moved in a di¤erent trajectory, the ﬁring variances Cognitive Processes in Replacement Brain Parts 125 across the population may di¤er with respect to speed and directional ﬁring, but the two categories to which the neurons respond (location and direction) will not di¤er. Thus the same population can compute trajectories within di¤erent contexts, but the circumstance of having the replacement network inadvertently encode an irrelevant feature (i. The spatiotemporal patterns generated within ensembles across time would appear to incorporate all the necessary components of the code if there is a high correlation with behavior. Discriminant analyses such as principal components, independent components, or even canonical types will ex- tract whatever sources of variance are present in the data, not necessarily those that are task related. This provides a good check on the appropriateness of the paradigm, but it also indicates to what degree a given code reﬂects task-relevant information. In some cases information will be revealed in the discriminant analysis by the pres- ence of components that are not obviously directly related to the behavioral out- comes. By deﬁnition these cells cannot repre- sent or encode a single feature of the task within the trial since they ﬁre equivalently to conjunctions of events. However, these same cells do not ﬁre when the opposite trial type is present, even though the animal responds to the same levers as before, but in a di¤erent sequence (i. This di¤erential ﬁring of neurons with respect to coded type of trial suggests an extended, hierarchical set of connections between conjunctive neurons to provide a level of code signifying a completely abstracted dimension. The New Prosthetics The advent of population recording has provided a means of establishing a new approach to the design of neural prostheses. Recent breakthroughs in this area by Chapin, Nicolelis, Schwartz, and others (Georgopoulos, 1994; Chapin et al. Deadwyler for particular movements from the motor and sensory cortices that provide the basis for algorithms that can be applied to devices that mimic limb movements. The possibilities of these new and exciting ﬁndings for rehabilitation and neural prostheses are obvious; however, they also have signiﬁcance in the context of replace- able brain parts. For in- stance, an algorithm generated from the population code to move an object may also be used as a basis for training an implanted device to activate the muscles nor- mally responsible for a particular movement. This essentially amounts to using one population code to train another population of artiﬁcial neurons. An encouraging outcome of the work in neural prosthetics as it relates to replacement brain parts is the discovery that relatively small number of recorded neurons are needed to con- struct successful algorithms. The relatively small sample of neurons required to predict events with a high degree of accuracy suggests that the underlying means of partitioning information in such networks is through segregation into functional categories. This is supported by the fact that the most successful algorithms derived from population recordings perform a principal components analysis extraction as the ﬁrst step in modeling the online process. The sources of variance in the population are therefore identiﬁed, and as a result the critical ﬁring patterns of neurons for performing the task can be detected within the ensemble.
Unlike other oral nitrates buy generic kamagra 50 mg on line erectile dysfunction causes prescription drugs, this drug is not subject to smoke may have reduced efﬁcacy with the use of beta block- first-pass hepatic metabolism generic kamagra 50 mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction pump treatment. Clients with asthma should be observed for broncho- 1 hour, peak effects occur between 1 and 4 hours, and the spasm from blockage of beta2 receptors in the lung. It is used blockers should be used with caution in clients with diabetes only for prophylaxis of angina; it does not act rapidly mellitus because they can conceal signs of hypoglycemia enough to relieve acute attacks. Propranolol, the prototype beta blocker, is used to re- duce the frequency and severity of acute attacks of angina. It is usually added to the antianginal drug regimen when ni- Nursing Notes: Apply Your Knowledge trates do not prevent anginal episodes. It is especially useful in preventing exercise-induced tachycardia, which can pre- cipitate anginal attacks. Sinatro, a patient with newly diagnosed coronary artery dis- are more effective than nitrates or calcium channel blockers ease (CAD), has been started on a nitroglycerin patch that she is in decreasing the likelihood of silent ischemia and improv- to apply in the morning and remove before going to bed at night. Sublingual nitroglycerin, PRN, is ordered for episodes of chest Propranolol is well absorbed after oral administration. For this reason, oral doses of propranolol are much higher than IV doses. Onset of action is 30 minutes after oral administration and 1 to 2 minutes after IV injection. Muscle Because of variations in the degree of hepatic metabolism, ****************************** cell clients vary widely in the dosages required to maintain a ther- apeutic response. A Atenolol, metoprolol, and nadolol have the same actions, uses, and adverse effects as propranolol, but they have long half-lives and can be given once daily. They are excreted by the kidneys, and dosage must be reduced in clients with renal Muscle contraction impairment. Calcium Channel Blocking Agents Muscle cell Calcium channel blockers act on contractile and conductive tis- sues of the heart and on vascular smooth muscle. For these cells B to function normally, the concentration of intracellular calcium must be increased. This is usually accomplished by movement of extracellular calcium ions into the cell (through calcium channels in the cell membrane) and release of bound cal- Calcium-blocking drugs cium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the cell. Thus, calcium plays an important role in maintaining vasomotor tone, myo- cardial contractility, and conduction. Calcium channel block- ing agents prevent the movement of extracellular calcium into Muscle the cell. As a result, coronary and peripheral arteries are dilated, cell myocardial contractility is decreased, and the conduction system is depressed in relation to impulse formation (auto- maticity) and conduction velocity (Fig. C In angina pectoris, the drugs improve the blood supply to Figure 53–1 Calcium channel blockers: mechanism of action. In atrial ﬁbrillation or ﬂutter and other supraven- (C) When calcium channels are blocked by drug molecules, muscle tricular tachydysrhythmias, diltiazem and verapamil slow the contraction is decreased because calcium ions cannot move through rate of ventricular response. In hypertension, the drugs lower the cell membrane into the muscle cell. Most also have short elimination used for angina or hypertension, and only diltiazem and verap- half-lives (<5 hours), so doses must be given three or four amil are used to manage supraventricular tachydysrhythmias. In clients with CAD, the drugs are effective as monotherapy Amlodipine (30 to 50 hours), bepridil (24 hours), and felodi- but are commonly prescribed in combination with beta block- pine (11 to 16 hours) have long elimination half-lives and there- ers. In addition, nimodipine is approved for use only in sub- fore can be given once daily. The drugs are metabolized in the arachnoid hemorrhage, in which it decreases spasm in cerebral liver, and dosage should be reduced in clients with severe liver blood vessels and limits the extent of brain damage. Seven of these are chemically dihydropyridines, Contraindications include second- or third-degree heart of which nifedipine is the prototype. Bepridil, diltiazem, and block, cardiogenic shock, and severe bradycardia, heart fail- verapamil differ chemically from the dihydropyridines and ure, or hypotension. Nifedipine and related drugs act mainly on vascu- with milder bradycardia, heart failure, or hypotension and lar smooth muscle to produce vasodilation, whereas verapamil with renal or hepatic impairment. CHAPTER 53 ANTIANGINAL DRUGS 781 Adjunctive Antianginal Drugs Elevated cholesterol is a signiﬁcant risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis and angina and the risk is directly related to In addition to antianginal drugs, several other drugs may be the degree of elevation.
T IR IT O S IN ItsRole in M otor Control and M ovem ent Disorders Emmanuel Pierrot-Deseilligny Hopital de la Salpetriereˆ ˆ ` and David Burke University of Sydney cambridge university press Cambridge kamagra 100mg overnight delivery erectile dysfunction from steroids, New York order kamagra 100 mg overnight delivery impotence venous leakage ligation, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge cb2 2ru,UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published in print format 2005 isbn-13 978-0-511-12544-7 eBook (EBL) isbn-10 0-511-12544-5 eBook (EBL) isbn-13 978-0-521-82581-8 hardback isbn-10 0-521-82581-4 hardback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. In the 1910–1920s Paul Hoffmann demonstrated that percutaneous electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve in human subjects produced a synchro- nised response in the soleus muscle with the same central delay as the Achilles tendon jerk. Subse- quently, much of the primary knowledge about the spinal circuitry has come from animal experiments, but human studies have retained a unique role: the abilitytosheddirectlightonhowspinalmechanisms are used in the control of voluntary movement. Modern views about spinal pathways began to emerge when Anders Lundberg and colleagues showed in the 1960s and 1970s that, in the cat, each set of spinal interneurones receives extensive convergence from different primary afferents and descending tracts, and that the integrative function of spinal interneurones allows the motoneurones to receive a ﬁnal command that has been updated at a premotoneuronal level. Methods have now been developed to enable indirect but nevertheless valid measurements of spinal interneuronal activ- ity in human subjects, and these techniques have demonstrated reliability, particularly when congru- ent results are obtained with independent meth- ods. Their use has allowed elucidation of how the brain modulates the activity of speciﬁc spinal xv xvi Preface interneurones to control movement. This, together ied, (ii) how they are used in normal movement, and with the abnormalities of motor control resulting (iii) how they malfunction in disease states. It is a thesis of this conditions), isometric voluntary contractions have book that the ﬁnal movement is only that part of been the main motor tasks during which changes in thesupraspinallyderivedprogrammethatthespinal transmission in spinal pathways have been investi- cordcircuitrydeemsappropriate. However, recent technological advances now of the spinal cord to generate or sustain even simple allow the investigation of spinal pathways during movements, particularly in human subjects, is lim- naturalmovements,includingreachingandwalking. The motor cortex, it is possible to investigate the corti- recent recording by Eberhard Fetz and colleagues cospinal control of spinal interneurones, but there fromspinalinterneuronesduring,andbefore,volun- are little data for other descending controls from tary movement in the awake monkey well illustrates basal ganglia and the brainstem, other than vestibu- this role of the spinal cord. There techniqueshavebeendevelopedtoallowmoreaccu- has been an explosion of studies on human move- rate probing of spinal pathways in human subjects, ment and of the dysfunction that accompanies dif- providing data that can validate and extend the ﬁnd- ferent neurological disorders, and the prime ration- ings from H reﬂex studies. As a result, knowledge of ale for this book is to summarise the literature the role of spinal pathways in normal and pathologi- related to the control of spinal cord circuitry in cal motor control has increased greatly, and this pro- human subjects. Forexample, ronal circuits can be studied reliably in human sub- the use of post-stimulus time histograms has allowed jects, and no one book can provide a complete the investigation of single motoneurones in human overview of the role of spinal circuitry in normal and subjects, the technique of spatial facilitation allows pathological movement: there are no data for the the exploration of the convergence of different vol- many circuits that cannot yet be studied in human leys on spinal interneurones, and transcortical stim- subjects, let alone the cat. This book is intended to ulation of the motor cortex allows the corticospinal provide a comprehensive account of (i) how some control of spinal pathways to be investigated. This well-recognised and deﬁned circuits can be stud- book details this newer knowledge for the use of Preface xvii those who have an interest in the subject but who been the subject of phylogenetic adaptations have not had time to read the rapidly accumulating to different motor repertoires. Inevitably, there will be inconsis- lower limb, more elaborate reﬂex assistance is tencies in conclusions from studies on intact human required for bipedal stance and gait. Greater has been this phylogenetic adaptation argues validity comes from using a number of independent that spinal pathways have a functional role techniques to demonstrate the same ﬁnding, as is in human subjects and are not evolutionary emphasised in the following chapters. It requires experiments per- Possible future directions for the research are formed during natural movements, as can be discussed. The differ- tributionofhumanstudiestotheunderstanding ent spinal pathways for which there are reliable and of motor control physiology. Thus, even though non-invasive methods of investigation are consid- many of the conclusions are speculative, this ered with, for each pathway: book gives a large place to the probable func- (i) A brief background from animal experiments. The general human subjects, but the validation of a tech- methodologies that are used for investigating path- niqueforexploringagivenpathwaymayrequire ways are considered in a ﬁrst chapter with, for each controls only possible in animal experiments method, its advantages and its disadvantages. There and is more credible when there is a close anal- is a risk that starting with a technical chapter would ogy with animal experiments. This initial chapter is useful to thathavebeenusedtoexploretherelevantpath- understand fully the particular techniques used for ways selectively. Methodological details allow- the investigation of the different pathways, but it ing the reader to use reliable methods are is not essential for comprehension of the following described. The basic organisation of each interpretations were erroneous even if, at the time, pathway may well be the same in humans and inﬂuential, the methods are described in detail, with cats, but the strength of the projections of indi- theirlimitsandcaveats,andtheresultsobtainedand vidual spinal pathways on different motoneu- theirinterpretation(s)arecriticallyevaluatedineach rone pools and their descending control have chapter. Because human studies are fraught with xviii Preface technical difﬁculties, much space has been alloted The ﬁnal two chapters summarise and synthesise to methods and potential pitfalls. It would not have been possible if our wives had not appre- ciated the importance for us of bringing together in a single volume the accumulated knowledge on spinal mechanisms in the control of movement.
The effect of this same the new medication (clozapine) producing an factor was also alluded to several years ago 49 46 effect size of 2 order 50mg kamagra with mastercard erectile dysfunction treatment calgary. But discount kamagra 100mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction young age, although ication should be taken into account in ran- the outcome at post-treatment was affected by domisation or at least in subgroup analyses. Being clear about which variables may no relationship between effect size and the interact with psychological treatment is essential proportion of men in the trial but as they at the outset of the trial because the trial must be themselves point out no data were available for deﬁned and have a sufﬁciently large sample to be the speciﬁc outcomes for men and women that adequately powered to test for these effects. However, young men are usually thought to have a poorer Details outcomeandaremorelikelytodropout. This was adopted in each centre which contributed replicated a similar earlier ﬁnding of Schulz et al. There is good evidence that the allows them to control for within-centre effects poorer the trial methodology the better, and more and allows them to test between-centre effects of inﬂated, the treatment results obtained. The assessment and treatment procedures must be separate and independent, in other words the person who carries out the assessment should be Blindness different from the person who delivers the treat- In clinical trials blindness usually refers to ment. This is not always the case in published tri- als, for example Brooker et al. The ﬁrst relates to the allocation of participants to the different health nurses in family intervention and assessed treatment limbs so that the allocation process is the effectiveness of the intervention by having independent and concealed from those involved the nurses perform the assessments. Independent assessors and therapists will not The second use of the word blindness relates ensure that assessors remain naive to treatment to the concealment of which treatment the allocation. Accidental knowledge of allocation participant received from those involved with can be minimised by using separate adminis- assessment, especially of outcome. This is an trative procedures and geographically separating extremely important issue and one that is difﬁcult therapists from assessors in terms of ofﬁce loca- to ensure. This should conscious or otherwise, entering the assessment prevent assessors bumping into patients about process through knowledge of which treatment to receive therapy and such similar accidents. Patients should be previous studies had demonstrated this may bias instructed not to reveal any detail of their treat- an assessor to rating the patient as more improved ment or who has treated them to the assessors at if they knew the patient had received CBT. The importance of adequate concealment was It is unlikely that this will be fool-proof but it 50 will minimise revelations. The examined Opinions differ as to whether veriﬁcation trials had already passed a number of quality of maintenance of blindness is desirable. It is assessments and been included in a number possible to ask assessors to guess the allocation of meta-analyses. This can be used as evidence poorer quality blinding were associated with of successful blindness. Guessing is to follow a protocol as to the procedure of less likely to be successful when there are more the interview so that adequate and sufﬁcient than two treatment groups. In most even more than two, an assessor could adopt a studies of CBT in general and for psychosis strategy that patients who improved should be in particular, the process for blind allocation is rarely described, for example Kuipers et al. If the trial had been successful this strategy would have both describe the method for ensuring blindness been correct and the assessor would most likely and the maintenance of allocation of subjects have guessed right in many cases although for the to groups. This would not be an indication that the assessor knew of the treatment allocation PROTOCOL and was hence biased in their assessment but that they knew who improved which aided them Design Protocol in guessing group allocation. The problem for the trial investigators here would be that their There are various ways of testing whether assessors appear not to have been blind. If the a particular treatment is efﬁcacious but the assessors were not able to guess correctly using accepted method is to compare the treatment with this strategy it would probably mean that the a placebo control that allows for a comparison experimental treatment had not been effective and of client expectations of improvement during the trial was a failure anyway. We guess allocation holds the investigators hostage to have discussed above the importance of these fortune, although with multiple treatment groups non-speciﬁc factors in psychological treatments. Social contact, social support and the modelling Even if assessors do maintain blindness to of interpersonal behaviour are all an integral treatment allocation they will still be aware of the part of psychological therapy. Tests of the timing of the assessment, pre-, post-treatment or effectiveness of individual CBT have used a follow-up. Thus all assessment interviews should the examination of both the effectiveness and be audio-taped independently of their rating speciﬁcity of the effect of CBT above the and rating should be carried out by a different effects found for psychological interventions in assessor who is unaware of the allocation or general in this group. This would also allow the audio- there are signiﬁcant effects over treatment-as- tapes to be edited of any accidental revelation usual. This is probably It is essential to have a clear and unambiguous the most important part of rating CBT trials treatment protocol for psychological treatments.
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